Recombinant DNA: The Science, Risks, And Regulations (Details)


Recombinant DNA means a group of those DNA molecules that aren’t found normally in the genome. These catapult from genetic recombination to bring together genetic material from various sources. Hence, this DNA is an altered DNA after laboratory processes. However, there are a series of ‘what-ifs’ that also stem from this research. What if a toxic gene clostridium gene is blended with E.coli, we will have an E.coli producing a harmful toxin. This is not desirable neither safe. So, what are the adverse implications of Recombinant DNA?

How did the idea of Recombinant DNA come forward?


The ides of this DNA stemmed from an observation that the development of drug resistance by bacteria can make up normal flora intestine in man. Several antibiotics making made it clear that non-pathogenic E coli can synthesize an enzyme to make the drug inactive. Hence, knowing that genetic manipulation of E.coli resistant and Salmonella into Salmonella Resistant brought about the idea of Recombinant DNA.

Recombinant DNA

The application of Recombinant DNA is pure and applied. You can check the organization of genomic DNA and hybridized DNA. The prospect of synthesizing large quantities of proteins is one important feature of this DNA technology. The protein developed via this process can uplift the levels of insulin. Not only in humans and animals but also in plants, we can confer fixed nitrogen genes for better legume health.


Recombinant DNA
Detailed procedure of Recombinant DNA–Source: Research Gate

Where do the hazards lie?

The hazard originates from the fact that a non-pathogenic organism like E Coli can pass onto a pathogenic organism like shown in the diagram above. It can reduce the stock of effective antibiotics. This is the harm that Recombinant DNA technology poses. The modified toxic E Coli DNA, if passed on to a human, can create an unknown sequence of human tumor cells. This can cause neoplastic transformation in the affected human. If the same E Coli with less toxic modified DNA passes onto the human intestine, instead of regulating the insulin level, it can make a beta-globin invasion. Hence, the shot-gun experiments cause a major risk in almost all cases.

So as not to let the Recombinant DNA go berserk, the study that Paul Berg conducted in the USA gave few restrictive solutions. We can disable the strains of E Coli and biologically contain i. Like this, if it grows on thymine or diaminopimelic acid, the intestine will likely not get affected. This disabled E Coli will also not tamper with non-disabled bacteria. The physical and biological containment protocols released by the NIH Guidelines in 1976 clearly state the level of caution needed to work with this. Hence, in the USA and Western Europe, the scientists are warning of the usage of Recombinant DNA, Even though the technology is advantageous, “it is sensible to choose the prudent approach.” After all, it is not Hitler’s era where he wanted to create the perfect race, no matter how.


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